PHP 8.2

New Features

PHP Core

SensitiveParameter Attribute

Added the #[\SensitiveParameter] attribute to redact sensitive data in backtraces.

error_log_mode INI directive

The error_log_mode INI directive has been added which allows setting the permissions for the error log file.

Enumerations properties in constant expressions

It is now possible to fetch properties of Enumerations in constant expressions.

Type System Improvements

It is now possible to use null and false as stand-alone types.

The true type has been added.

It is now possible to combine intersection and union types. The type needs to be written in DNF.

Constants in Traits

It is now possible to define constants in traits.

Readonly Classes

Support for readonly on classes has been added.

cURL

Added the CURLINFO_EFFECTIVE_METHOD option, which returns the effective HTTP method in the return value of curl_getinfo().

Exposed multiple new constants from libcurl 7.62 to 7.80.

Added the curl_upkeep() function to perform any connection upkeep checks.

DBA

The LMDB Driver now accepts the DBA_LMDB_USE_SUB_DIR or DBA_LMDB_NO_SUB_DIR flags to determine if it should create a subdirectory or not when creating a database file.

OCI8

Added the oci8.prefetch_lob_size INI directive and oci_set_prefetch_lob() function to tune LOB query performance by reducing the number of round-trips between PHP and Oracle Databases when fetching LOBS. This is usable with Oracle Database 12.2 or later.

OpenSSL

Added AEAD support for the chacha20-poly1305 algorithm.

ODBC

Added the odbc_connection_string_is_quoted(), odbc_connection_string_should_quote(), and odbc_connection_string_quote() functions. These are primarily used behind the scenes in the ODBC and PDO_ODBC extensions, but are exposed to userland for easier unit testing, and for user applications and libraries to perform quoting themselves.

PCRE

Added support for the n (NO_AUTO_CAPTURE) modifier, which makes simple (xyz) groups non-capturing. Only named groups like (?<name>xyz) are capturing. This only affects which groups are capturing, it is still possible to use numbered subpattern references, and the matches array will still contain numbered results.

Random

This is a new extension which organises and consolidates existing implementations related to random number generators. New and better RNGs are available with scope issues eliminated.

PHP 8.1

New Features

PHP Core

Integer Octal Literal Prefix

Octal integers can now use an explicit 0o/0O prefix in integer literals, similarly to binary and hexadecimal integer literals.

<?php
014
;  // Non-prefix octal literal
0o14// Prefixed octal literal
?>

Array Unpacking with String Keys

Added support for array unpacking with strings keys.

<?php
$arr1 
= [1'a' => 'b'];
$arr2 = [...$arr1'c' => 'd']; //[1, 'a' => 'b', 'c' => 'd']
?>

Named Argument After Argument Unpacking

It is now possible to specify named arguments after an argument unpack. e.g. foo(...$args, named: $arg).

full-path Key for File Uploads

File uploads now provide an additional full_path key, which contains the full path (rather than just the basename) of the uploaded file. This is intended for use in conjunction with "upload webkitdirectory".

Enumerations

Support for Enumerations has been added.

Fibers

Support for Fibers has been added.

First Class Callable Syntax

Closures for callables can now be created using the syntax myFunc(...), which is identical to Closure::fromCallable('myFunc').

Note: The ... is part of the syntax, and not an omission.

Intersection Types

Support for intersection types has been added.

Caution

Intersection types cannot be used together with union types

Never type

A new return only type never has been added. This indicates that a function either exit(), throws an exception, or doesn't terminate.

new in Initializers

It is now possible to use new ClassName() expressions as the default value of a parameter, static variable, global constant initializers, and as attribute arguments. Objects can also be passed to define() now.

Readonly properties

Support for readonly has been added.

Final class constants

Added support for the final modifier for class constants. Also, interface constants become overridable by default.

CURL

Added the CURLOPT_DOH_URL option.

Added options for blob certificate when libcurl >= 7.71.0:

  • CURLOPT_ISSUERCERT_BLOB
  • CURLOPT_PROXY_ISSUERCERT
  • CURLOPT_PROXY_ISSUERCERT_BLOB
  • CURLOPT_PROXY_SSLCERT_BLOB
  • CURLOPT_PROXY_SSLKEY_BLOB
  • CURLOPT_SSLCERT_BLOB
  • CURLOPT_SSLKEY_BLOB

Added CURLStringFile, which can be used to post a file from a string rather than a file:

<?php
$file 
= new CURLStringFile($data'filename.txt''text/plain');
curl_setopt($curlCURLOPT_POSTFIELDS, ['file' => $file]);
?>

FPM

Added openmetrics status format. It can be used by Prometheus to fetch FPM metrics.

Added new pool option for the dynamic process manager called pm.max_spawn_rate. It allows to start a number of children at a faster rate when dynamic pm is selected. The default value is 32 which was the previous hard coded value.

GD

Avif support is now available through imagecreatefromavif() and imageavif(), if libgd has been built with Avif support.

Hash

The following functions hash(), hash_file(), and hash_init() now support an additional optional options argument, which can be used to pass algorithm specific data.

MurmurHash3

Added support for MurmurHash3 with streaming support. The following variants are implemented:

  • murmur3a, 32-bit hash
  • murmur3c, 128-bit hash for x86
  • murmur3f, 128-bit hash for x64

The initial hash state can be passed through the seed key in the options array, for example:

<?php
$h 
hash("murmur3f"$dataoptions: ["seed" => 42]);
echo 
$h"\n";
?>
A valid seed value is within the range from 0 to the platform defined UINT_MAX, usually 4294967295.

xxHash

Added support for xxHash. The following variants are implemented:

  • xxh32, 32-bit hash
  • xxh64, 64-bit hash
  • xxh3, 64-bit hash
  • xxh128, 128-bit hash

The initial hash state can be passed through the seed key in the options array, for example:

<?php
$h 
hash("xxh3"$dataoptions: ["seed" => 42]);
echo 
$h"\n";
?>
Secret usage is supported through passing the secret key in the options array, too:
<?php
$h 
hash("xxh3"$dataoptions: ["secret" => "at least 136 bytes long secret here"]);
echo 
$h"\n";
?>
The quality of the custom secret is crucial for the quality of the resulting hash. It is highly recommended for the secret to use the best possible entropy.

MySQLi

New INI directive mysqli.local_infile_directory

The mysqli.local_infile_directory INI directive has been added, which can be used to specify a directory from which files are allowed to be loaded. It is only meaningful if mysqli.allow_local_infile is not enabled, as all directories are allowed in that case.

Binding parameters in execute

It is now possible to bind parameters by passing them as an array to mysqli_stmt::execute(). All values will be bound as strings. Only list arrays are allowed. This new feature is not available when MySQLi is compiled with libmysqlclient.

<?php
$stmt 
$mysqli->prepare('INSERT INTO users(id, name) VALUES(?,?)');
$stmt->execute([1$username]);
?>

New method mysqli_result::fetch_column()

mysqli_result::fetch_column() has been added to allow fetching a single scalar value from the result set. The new method accepts an optional 0-based column parameter of type int specifying which column to fetch from.

<?php
$result 
$mysqli->query('SELECT username FROM users WHERE id = 123');
echo 
$result->fetch_column();
?>

PDO

The PDO::MYSQL_ATTR_LOCAL_INFILE_DIRECTORY attribute has been added, which can be used to specify a directory from which files are allowed to be loaded. It is only meaningful if PDO::MYSQL_ATTR_LOCAL_INFILE is not enabled, as all directories are allowed in that case.

PDO_SQLite

SQLite's "file:" DSN syntax is now supported, which allows specifying additional flags. This feature is not available if open_basedir is set.

<?php
new PDO('sqlite:file:path/to/sqlite.db?mode=ro')
?>

POSIX

Added POSIX_RLIMIT_KQUEUES and POSIX_RLIMIT_NPTS. These rlimits are only available on FreeBSD.

Standard

fputcsv() now accepts a new eol argument which allows to define a custom End of Line sequence, the default remains the same and is "\n".

SPL

SplFileObject::fputcsv() now accepts a new eol argument which allows to define a custom End of Line sequence, the default remains the same and is "\n".

PHP 8.0

New Features

PHP Core

Named Arguments

Support for Named Arguments has been added.

Attributes

Support for Attributes has been added.

Constructor Property Promotion

Support for constructor property promotion (declaring properties in the constructor signature) has been added.

Union Types

Support for union types has been added.

Match Expression

Support for match expressions has been added.

Nullsafe Operator

Support for the nullsafe operator (?->) has been added.

Other new Features

  • The WeakMap class has been added.

  • The ValueError class has been added.

  • Any number of function parameters may now be replaced by a variadic argument, as long as the types are compatible. For example, the following code is now allowed:

    <?php
    class {
         public function 
    method(int $manystring $parameters$here) {}
    }
    class 
    extends {
         public function 
    method(...$everything) {}
    }
    ?>
  • static (as in "late static binding") can now be used as a return type:

    <?php
    class Test {
         public function 
    create(): static {
              return new static();
         }
    }
    ?>
  • It is now possible to fetch the class name of an object using $object::class. The result is the same as get_class($object).

  • new and instanceof can now be used with arbitrary expressions, using new (expression)(...$args) and $obj instanceof (expression).

  • Some consistency fixes to variable syntax have been applied, for example writing Foo::BAR::$baz is now allowed.

  • Added Stringable interface, which is automatically implemented if a class defines a __toString() method.

  • Traits can now define abstract private methods. Such methods must be implemented by the class using the trait.

  • throw can now be used as an expression. That allows usages like:

    <?php
    $fn 
    fn() => throw new Exception('Exception in arrow function');
    $user $session->user ?? throw new Exception('Must have user');
  • An optional trailing comma is now allowed in parameter lists.

    <?php
    function functionWithLongSignature(
        
    Type1 $parameter1,
        
    Type2 $parameter2// <-- This comma is now allowed.
    ) {
    }
  • It is now possible to write catch (Exception) to catch an exception without storing it in a variable.

  • Support for mixed type has been added.

  • Private methods declared on a parent class no longer enforce any inheritance rules on the methods of a child class (with the exception of final private constructors). The following example illustrates which restrictions have been removed:

    <?php
    class ParentClass {
        private function 
    method1() {}
        private function 
    method2() {}
        private static function 
    method3() {}
        
    // Throws a warning, as "final" no longer has an effect:
        
    private final function method4() {}
    }
    class 
    ChildClass extends ParentClass {
        
    // All of the following are now allowed, even though the modifiers aren't
        // the same as for the private methods in the parent class.
        
    public abstract function method1() {}
        public static function 
    method2() {}
        public function 
    method3() {}
        public function 
    method4() {}
    }
    ?>
  • get_resource_id() has been added, which returns the same value as (int) $resource. It provides the same functionality under a clearer API.

  • The InternalIterator has been added.

Date and Time

DOM

DOMParentNode and DOMChildNode with new traversal and manipulation APIs have been added.

Filter

FILTER_VALIDATE_BOOL has been added as an alias for FILTER_VALIDATE_BOOLEAN. The new name is preferred, as it uses the canonical type name.

Enchant

enchant_dict_add(), enchant_dict_is_added(), and LIBENCHANT_VERSION have been added.

FPM

Added a new option pm.status_listen that allows getting the status from different endpoint (e.g. port or UDS file) which is useful for getting the status when all children are busy with serving long running requests.

Hash

HashContext objects can now be serialized.

Internationalization Functions

The IntlDateFormatter::RELATIVE_FULL, IntlDateFormatter::RELATIVE_LONG, IntlDateFormatter::RELATIVE_MEDIUM, and IntlDateFormatter::RELATIVE_SHORT constants have been added.

LDAP

ldap_count_references() has been added, which returns the number of reference messages in a search result.

OPcache

If the opcache.record_warnings ini setting is enabled, OPcache will record compile-time warnings and replay them on the next include, even if it is served from cache.

OpenSSL

Added Cryptographic Message Syntax (CMS) (» RFC 5652) support composed of functions for encryption, decryption, signing, verifying and reading. The API is similar to the API for PKCS #7 functions with an addition of new encoding constants: OPENSSL_ENCODING_DER, OPENSSL_ENCODING_SMIME and OPENSSL_ENCODING_PEM:

  • openssl_cms_encrypt() encrypts the message in the file with the certificates and outputs the result to the supplied file.
  • openssl_cms_decrypt() that decrypts the S/MIME message in the file and outputs the results to the supplied file.
  • openssl_cms_read() that exports the CMS file to an array of PEM certificates.
  • openssl_cms_sign() that signs the MIME message in the file with a cert and key and output the result to the supplied file.
  • openssl_cms_verify() that verifies that the data block is intact, the signer is who they say they are, and returns the certs of the signers.

Regular Expressions (Perl-Compatible)

preg_last_error_msg() has been added, which returns a human-readable message for the last PCRE error. It complements preg_last_error(), which returns an integer enum value instead.

Reflection

SQLite3

SQLite3::setAuthorizer() and respective class constants have been added to set a userland callback that will be used to authorize or not an action on the database.

Standard Library

  • str_contains(), str_starts_with() and str_ends_with() have been added, which check whether haystack contains, starts with or ends with needle, respectively.

  • fdiv() has been added, which performs a floating-point division under IEEE 754 semantics. Division by zero is considered well-defined and will return one of Inf, -Inf or NaN.

  • get_debug_type() has been added, which returns a type useful for error messages. Unlike gettype(), it uses canonical type names, returns class names for objects, and indicates the resource type for resources.

  • printf() and friends now support the %h and %H format specifiers. These are the same as %g and %G, but always use "." as the decimal separator, rather than determining it through the LC_NUMERIC locale.

  • printf() and friends now support using "*" as width or precision, in which case the width/precision is passed as an argument to printf. This also allows using precision -1 with %g, %G, %h and %H. For example, the following code can be used to reproduce PHP's default floating point formatting:

    <?php
    printf
    ("%.*H", (int) ini_get("precision"), $float);
    printf("%.*H", (int) ini_get("serialize_precision"), $float);
    ?>
  • proc_open() now supports pseudo-terminal (PTY) descriptors. The following attaches stdin, stdout and stderr to the same PTY:

    <?php
    $proc 
    proc_open($command, [['pty'], ['pty'], ['pty']], $pipes);
    ?>
  • proc_open() now supports socket pair descriptors. The following attaches a distinct socket pair to stdin, stdout and stderr:

    <?php
    $proc 
    proc_open($command, [['socket'], ['socket'], ['socket']], $pipes);
    ?>

    Unlike pipes, sockets do not suffer from blocking I/O issues on Windows. However, not all programs may work correctly with stdio sockets.

  • Sorting functions are now stable, which means that equal-comparing elements will retain their original order.

  • array_diff(), array_intersect() and their variations can now be used with a single array as argument. This means that usages like the following are now possible:

    <?php
    // OK even if $excludes is empty:
    array_diff($array, ...$excludes);
    // OK even if $arrays only contains a single array:
    array_intersect(...$arrays);
    ?>
  • The flag parameter of ob_implicit_flush() was changed to accept a bool rather than an int.

Tokenizer

PhpToken adds an object-based interface to the tokenizer. It provides a more uniform and ergonomic representation, while being more memory efficient and faster.

Zip

PHP 7.4

New Features

PHP Core

Typed properties

Class properties now support type declarations.

<?php
class User {
    public 
int $id;
    public 
string $name;
}
?>
The above example will enforce that $user->id can only be assigned int values and $user->name can only be assigned string values.

Arrow functions

Arrow functions provide a shorthand syntax for defining functions with implicit by-value scope binding.

<?php
$factor 
10;
$nums array_map(fn($n) => $n $factor, [1234]);
// $nums = array(10, 20, 30, 40);
?>

Limited return type covariance and argument type contravariance

The following code will now work:

<?php
class {}
class 
extends {}

class 
Producer {
    public function 
method(): {}
}
class 
ChildProducer extends Producer {
    public function 
method(): {}
}
?>
Full variance support is only available if autoloading is used. Inside a single file only non-cyclic type references are possible, because all classes need to be available before they are referenced.

Null coalescing assignment operator

<?php
$array
['key'] ??= computeDefault();
// is roughly equivalent to
if (!isset($array['key'])) {
    
$array['key'] = computeDefault();
}
?>

Unpacking inside arrays

<?php
$parts 
= ['apple''pear'];
$fruits = ['banana''orange', ...$parts'watermelon'];
// ['banana', 'orange', 'apple', 'pear', 'watermelon'];
?>

Numeric literal separator

Numeric literals can contain underscores between digits.

<?php
6.674_083e
-11// float
299_792_458;   // decimal
0xCAFE_F00D;   // hexadecimal
0b0101_1111;   // binary
?>

Weak references

Weak references allow the programmer to retain a reference to an object that does not prevent the object from being destroyed.

Allow exceptions from __toString()

Throwing exceptions from __toString() is now permitted. Previously this resulted in a fatal error. Existing recoverable fatal errors in string conversions have been converted to Error exceptions.

CURL

CURLFile now supports stream wrappers in addition to plain file names, if the extension has been built against libcurl >= 7.56.0.

Filter

The FILTER_VALIDATE_FLOAT filter now supports the min_range and max_range options, with the same semantics as FILTER_VALIDATE_INT.

FFI

FFI is a new extension, which provides a simple way to call native functions, access native variables, and create/access data structures defined in C libraries.

GD

Added the IMG_FILTER_SCATTER image filter to apply a scatter filter to images.

Hash

Added crc32c hash using Castagnoli's polynomial. This CRC32 variant is used by storage systems, such as iSCSI, SCTP, Btrfs and ext4.

Multibyte String

Added the mb_str_split() function, which provides the same functionality as str_split(), but operating on code points rather than bytes.

OPcache

Support for preloading code has been added.

Regular Expressions (Perl-Compatible)

The preg_replace_callback() and preg_replace_callback_array() functions now accept an additional flags argument, with support for the PREG_OFFSET_CAPTURE and PREG_UNMATCHED_AS_NULL flags. This influences the format of the matches array passed to the callback function.

PDO

The username and password can now be specified as part of the PDO DSN for the mysql, mssql, sybase, dblib, firebird and oci drivers. Previously this was only supported by the pgsql driver. If a username/password is specified both in the constructor and the DSN, the constructor takes precedence.

It is now possible to escape question marks in SQL queries to avoid them being interpreted as parameter placeholders. Writing ?? allows sending a single question mark to the database and e.g. use the PostgreSQL JSON key exists (?) operator.

PDO_OCI

PDOStatement::getColumnMeta() is now available.

PDO_SQLite

PDOStatement::getAttribute(PDO::SQLITE_ATTR_READONLY_STATEMENT) allows checking whether the statement is read-only, i.e. if it doesn't modify the database.

PDO::setAttribute(PDO::SQLITE_ATTR_EXTENDED_RESULT_CODES, true) enables the use of SQLite3 extended result codes in PDO::errorInfo() and PDOStatement::errorInfo().

SQLite3

Added SQLite3::lastExtendedErrorCode() to fetch the last extended result code.

Added SQLite3::enableExtendedResultCodes($enable = true), which will make SQLite3::lastErrorCode() return extended result codes.

Standard

strip_tags() with array of tag names

strip_tags() now also accepts an array of allowed tags: instead of strip_tags($str, '<a><p>') you can now write strip_tags($str, ['a', 'p']).

Custom object serialization

A new mechanism for custom object serialization has been added, which uses two new magic methods: __serialize and __unserialize.

<?php
// Returns array containing all the necessary state of the object.
public function __serialize(): array;

// Restores the object state from the given data array.
public function __unserialize(array $data): void;
?>
The new serialization mechanism supersedes the Serializable interface, which will be deprecated in the future.

Array merge functions without arguments

array_merge() and array_merge_recursive() may now be called without any arguments, in which case they will return an empty array. This is useful in conjunction with the spread operator, e.g. array_merge(...$arrays).

proc_open() function

proc_open() now accepts an array instead of a string for the command. In this case the process will be opened directly (without going through a shell) and PHP will take care of any necessary argument escaping.

<?php
proc_open
(['php''-r''echo "Hello World\n";'], $descriptors$pipes);
?>

proc_open() now supports redirect and null descriptors.

<?php
// Like 2>&1 on the shell
proc_open($cmd, [=> ['pipe''w'], => ['redirect'1]], $pipes);
// Like 2>/dev/null or 2>nul on the shell
proc_open($cmd, [=> ['pipe''w'], => ['null']], $pipes);
?>

argon2i(d) without libargon

password_hash() now has the argon2i and argon2id implementations from the sodium extension when PHP is built without libargon.

PHP 7.3

New Features

PHP Core

More Flexible Heredoc and Nowdoc Syntax

The closing marker for doc strings is no longer required to be followed by a semicolon or newline. Additionally the closing marker may be indented, in which case the indentation will be stripped from all lines in the doc string.

Array Destructuring supports Reference Assignments

Array destructuring now supports reference assignments using the syntax [&$a, [$b, &$c]] = $d. The same is also supported for list().

Instanceof Operator accepts Literals

instanceof now allows literals as the first operand, in which case the result is always false.

CompileError Exception instead of some Compilation Errors

A new CompileError exception has been added, from which ParseError inherits. A small number of compilation errors will now throw a CompileError instead of generating a fatal error. Currently this only affects compilation errors that may be thrown by token_get_all() in TOKEN_PARSE mode, but more errors may be converted in the future.

Trailing Commas are allowed in Calls

Trailing commas in function and method calls are now allowed.

Argon2id Support

The --with-password-argon2[=dir] configure argument now provides support for both Argon2i and Argon2id hashes in the password_hash(), password_verify(), password_get_info(), and password_needs_rehash() functions. Passwords may be hashed and verified using the PASSWORD_ARGON2ID constant. Support for both Argon2i and Argon2id in the password_*() functions now requires PHP be linked against libargon2 reference library ≥ 20161029.

FastCGI Process Manager

New options have been added to customize the FPM logging:

log_limit
This global option can be used for setting the log limit for the logged line which allows to log messages longer than 1024 characters without wrapping. It also fixes various wrapping issues.
log_buffering
This global option allows an experimental logging without extra buffering.
decorate_workers_output
This pool option allows to disable the output decoration for workers output when catch_workers_output is enabled.

BC Math Functions

bcscale() can now also be used as getter to retrieve the current scale in use.

Lightweight Directory Access Protocol

Full support for LDAP Controls has been added to the LDAP querying functions and ldap_parse_result():

Multibyte String Functions

Full Case-Mapping and Case-Folding Support

Support for full case-mapping and case-folding has been added. Unlike simple case-mapping, full case-mapping may change the length of the string. For example:

<?php
mb_strtoupper
("Straße");
// Produces STRAßE on PHP 7.2
// Produces STRASSE on PHP 7.3
?>
The different casing mapping and folding modes are available through mb_convert_case():
  • MB_CASE_LOWER (used by mb_strtolower())
  • MB_CASE_UPPER (used by mb_strtoupper())
  • MB_CASE_TITLE
  • MB_CASE_FOLD
  • MB_CASE_LOWER_SIMPLE
  • MB_CASE_UPPER_SIMPLE
  • MB_CASE_TITLE_SIMPLE
  • MB_CASE_FOLD_SIMPLE (used by case-insensitive operations)
Only unconditional, language agnostic full case-mapping is performed.

Case-Insensitive String Operations use Case-Folding

Case-insensitive string operations now use case-folding instead of case- mapping during comparisons. This means that more characters will be considered (case insensitively) equal now.

MB_CASE_TITLE performs Title-Case Conversion

mb_convert_case() with MB_CASE_TITLE now performs title-case conversion based on the Cased and CaseIgnorable derived Unicode properties. In particular this also improves handling of quotes and apostrophes.

Unicode 11 Support

The Multibyte String data tables have been updated for Unicode 11.

Long String Support

The Multibyte String Functions now correctly support strings larger than 2GB.

Performance Improvements

Performance of the Multibyte String extension has been significantly improved across the board. The largest improvements are in case conversion functions.

Named Captures Support

The mb_ereg_* functions now support named captures. Matching functions like mb_ereg() will now return named captures both using their group number and their name, similar to PCRE:

<?php
mb_ereg
('(?<word>\w+)''国'$matches);
// => [0 => "国", 1 => "国", "word" => "国"];
?>
Additionally, mb_ereg_replace() now supports the \k<> and \k'' notations to reference named captures in the replacement string:
<?php
mb_ereg_replace
('\s*(?<word>\w+)\s*'"_\k<word>_\k'word'_"' foo ');
// => "_foo_foo_"
?>
\k<> and \k'' can also be used for numbered references, which also works with group numbers greater than 9.

Readline

Support for the completion_append_character and completion_suppress_append options has been added to readline_info(). These options are only available if PHP is linked against libreadline (rather than libedit).

PHP 7.2

New features

New object type

A new type, object, has been introduced that can be used for (contravariant) parameter typing and (covariant) return typing of any objects.

<?php

function test(object $obj) : object
{
    return new 
SplQueue();
}

test(new StdClass());

Extension loading by name

Shared extensions no longer require their file extension (.so for Unix or .dll for Windows) to be specified. This is enabled in the php.ini file, as well as in the dl() function.

Abstract method overriding

Abstract methods can now be overridden when an abstract class extends another abstract class.

<?php

abstract class A
{
    abstract function 
test(string $s);
}
abstract class 
extends A
{
    
// overridden - still maintaining contravariance for parameters and covariance for return
    
abstract function test($s) : int;
}

Sodium is now a core extension

The modern Sodium cryptography library has now become a core extension in PHP.

For a complete function reference, see the Sodium chapter.

Password hashing with Argon2

Argon2 has been added to the password hashing API, where the following constants have been exposed:

  • PASSWORD_ARGON2I
  • PASSWORD_ARGON2_DEFAULT_MEMORY_COST
  • PASSWORD_ARGON2_DEFAULT_TIME_COST
  • PASSWORD_ARGON2_DEFAULT_THREADS

Extended string types for PDO

PDO's string type has been extended to support the national character type when emulating prepares. This has been done with the following constants:

  • PDO::PARAM_STR_NATL
  • PDO::PARAM_STR_CHAR
  • PDO::ATTR_DEFAULT_STR_PARAM

These constants are utilised by bitwise OR'ing them with PDO::PARAM_STR:

<?php

$db
->quote('über'PDO::PARAM_STR PDO::PARAM_STR_NATL);

Additional emulated prepares debugging information for PDO

The PDOStatement::debugDumpParams() method has been updated to include the SQL being sent to the DB, where the full, raw query (including the replaced placeholders with their bounded values) will be shown. This has been added to aid with debugging emulated prepares (and so it will only be available when emulated prepares are turned on).

Support for extended operations in LDAP

Support for EXOP has been added to the LDAP extension. This has been done by exposing the following functions and constants:

Address Information additions to the Sockets extension

The sockets extension now has the ability to lookup address information, as well as connect to it, bind to it, and explain it. The following four functions have been added for this:

Parameter type widening

Parameter types from overridden methods and from interface implementations may now be omitted. This is still in compliance with LSP, since parameters types are contravariant.

<?php

interface A
{
    public function 
Test(array $input);
}

class 
implements A
{
    public function 
Test($input){} // type omitted for $input
}

Allow a trailing comma for grouped namespaces

A trailing comma can now be added to the group-use syntax introduced in PHP 7.0.

<?php

use Foo\Bar\{
    
Foo,
    
Bar,
    
Baz,
};

proc_nice() support on Windows

The proc_nice() function is now supported on Windows.

pack() and unpack() endian support

The pack() and unpack() functions now support float and double in both little and big endian.

Enhancements to the EXIF extension

The EXIF extension has been updated to support a much larger range of formats. This means that their format specific tags are now properly translated when parsing images with the exif_read_data() function. The following new formats are now supported:

  • Samsung
  • DJI
  • Panasonic
  • Sony
  • Pentax
  • Minolta
  • Sigma/Foveon
  • AGFA
  • Kyocera
  • Ricoh
  • Epson

The EXIF functions exif_read_data() and exif_thumbnail() now support passing streams as their first argument.

New features in PCRE

  • The J modifier for setting PCRE_DUPNAMES has been added.

SQLite3 allows writing BLOBs

SQLite3::openBlob() now allows to open BLOB fields in write mode; formerly only read mode was supported.

Oracle OCI8 Transparent Application Failover Callbacks

Support for Oracle Database Transparent Application Failover (TAF) callbacks has been added. TAF allows PHP OCI8 applications to automatically reconnect to a preconfigured database when a connection is broken. The new TAF callback support allows PHP applications to monitor and control reconnection during failover.

Enhancements to the ZIP extension

Read and write support for encrypted archives has been added (requires libzip 1.2.0).

The ZipArchive class now implements the Countable interface.

The zip:// stream now accepts a 'password' context option.

PHP 7.1

New features

Nullable types

Type declarations for parameters and return values can now be marked as nullable by prefixing the type name with a question mark. This signifies that as well as the specified type, null can be passed as an argument, or returned as a value, respectively.

<?php

function testReturn(): ?string
{
    return 
'elePHPant';
}

var_dump(testReturn());

function 
testReturn(): ?string
{
    return 
null;
}

var_dump(testReturn());

function 
test(?string $name)
{
    
var_dump($name);
}

test('elePHPant');
test(null);
test();

The above example will output:

string(10) "elePHPant"
NULL
string(10) "elePHPant"
NULL
Uncaught Error: Too few arguments to function test(), 0 passed in...

Void functions

A void return type has been introduced. Functions declared with void as their return type must either omit their return statement altogether, or use an empty return statement. null is not a valid return value for a void function.

<?php
function swap(&$left, &$right): void
{
    if (
$left === $right) {
        return;
    }

    
$tmp $left;
    
$left $right;
    
$right $tmp;
}

$a 1;
$b 2;
var_dump(swap($a$b), $a$b);

The above example will output:

null
int(2)
int(1)

Attempting to use a void function's return value simply evaluates to null, with no warnings emitted. The reason for this is because warnings would implicate the use of generic higher order functions.

Symmetric array destructuring

The shorthand array syntax ([]) may now be used to destructure arrays for assignments (including within foreach), as an alternative to the existing list() syntax, which is still supported.

<?php
$data 
= [
    [
1'Tom'],
    [
2'Fred'],
];

// list() style
list($id1$name1) = $data[0];

// [] style
[$id1$name1] = $data[0];

// list() style
foreach ($data as list($id$name)) {
    
// logic here with $id and $name
}

// [] style
foreach ($data as [$id$name]) {
    
// logic here with $id and $name
}

Class constant visibility

Support for specifying the visibility of class constants has been added.

<?php
class ConstDemo
{
    const 
PUBLIC_CONST_A 1;
    public const 
PUBLIC_CONST_B 2;
    protected const 
PROTECTED_CONST 3;
    private const 
PRIVATE_CONST 4;
}

iterable pseudo-type

A new pseudo-type (similar to callable) called iterable has been introduced. It may be used in parameter and return types, where it accepts either arrays or objects that implement the Traversable interface. With respect to subtyping, parameter types of child classes may broaden a parent's declaration of array or Traversable to iterable. With return types, child classes may narrow a parent's return type of iterable to array or an object that implements Traversable.

<?php
function iterator(iterable $iter)
{
    foreach (
$iter as $val) {
        
//
    
}
}

Multi catch exception handling

Multiple exceptions per catch block may now be specified using the pipe character (|). This is useful for when different exceptions from different class hierarchies are handled the same.

<?php
try {
    
// some code
} catch (FirstException SecondException $e) {
    
// handle first and second exceptions
}

Support for keys in list()

You can now specify keys in list(), or its new shorthand [] syntax. This enables destructuring of arrays with non-integer or non-sequential keys.

<?php
$data 
= [
    [
"id" => 1"name" => 'Tom'],
    [
"id" => 2"name" => 'Fred'],
];

// list() style
list("id" => $id1"name" => $name1) = $data[0];

// [] style
["id" => $id1"name" => $name1] = $data[0];

// list() style
foreach ($data as list("id" => $id"name" => $name)) {
    
// logic here with $id and $name
}

// [] style
foreach ($data as ["id" => $id"name" => $name]) {
    
// logic here with $id and $name
}

Support for negative string offsets

Support for negative string offsets has been added to the string manipulation functions accepting offsets, as well as to string indexing with [] or {}. In such cases, a negative offset is interpreted as being an offset from the end of the string.

<?php
var_dump
("abcdef"[-2]);
var_dump(strpos("aabbcc""b", -3));

The above example will output:

string (1) "e"
int(3)

Negative string and array offsets are now also supported in the simple variable parsing syntax inside of strings.

<?php
$string 
'bar';
echo 
"The last character of '$string' is '$string[-1]'.\n";
?>

The above example will output:

The last character of 'bar' is 'r'.

Support for AEAD in ext/openssl

Support for AEAD (modes GCM and CCM) have been added by extending the openssl_encrypt() and openssl_decrypt() functions with additional parameters.

Convert callables to Closures with Closure::fromCallable()

A new static method has been introduced to the Closure class to allow for callables to be easily converted into Closure objects.

<?php
class Test
{
    public function 
exposeFunction()
    {
        return 
Closure::fromCallable([$this'privateFunction']);
    }

    private function 
privateFunction($param)
    {
        
var_dump($param);
    }
}

$privFunc = (new Test)->exposeFunction();
$privFunc('some value');

The above example will output:

string(10) "some value"

Asynchronous signal handling

A new function called pcntl_async_signals() has been introduced to enable asynchronous signal handling without using ticks (which introduce a lot of overhead).

<?php
pcntl_async_signals
(true); // turn on async signals

pcntl_signal(SIGHUP,  function($sig) {
    echo 
"SIGHUP\n";
});

posix_kill(posix_getpid(), SIGHUP);

The above example will output:

SIGHUP

HTTP/2 server push support in ext/curl

Support for server push has been added to the CURL extension (requires version 7.46 and above). This can be leveraged through the curl_multi_setopt() function with the new CURLMOPT_PUSHFUNCTION constant. The constants CURL_PUSH_OK and CURL_PUSH_DENY have also been added so that the execution of the server push callback can either be approved or denied.

Stream Context Options

The tcp_nodelay stream context option has been added.

PHP 7.0

New features

Scalar type declarations

Scalar type declarations come in two flavours: coercive (default) and strict. The following types for parameters can now be enforced (either coercively or strictly): strings (string), integers (int), floating-point numbers (float), and booleans (bool). They augment the other types introduced in PHP 5: class names, interfaces, array and callable.

<?php
// Coercive mode
function sumOfInts(int ...$ints)
{
    return 
array_sum($ints);
}

var_dump(sumOfInts(2'3'4.1));

The above example will output:

int(9)

To enable strict mode, a single declare directive must be placed at the top of the file. This means that the strictness of typing for scalars is configured on a per-file basis. This directive not only affects the type declarations of parameters, but also a function's return type (see return type declarations, built-in PHP functions, and functions from loaded extensions.

Full documentation and examples of scalar type declarations can be found in the type declaration reference.

Return type declarations

PHP 7 adds support for return type declarations. Similarly to argument type declarations, return type declarations specify the type of the value that will be returned from a function. The same types are available for return type declarations as are available for argument type declarations.

<?php

function arraysSum(array ...$arrays): array
{
    return 
array_map(function(array $array): int {
        return 
array_sum($array);
    }, 
$arrays);
}

print_r(arraysSum([1,2,3], [4,5,6], [7,8,9]));

The above example will output:

Array
(
    [0] => 6
    [1] => 15
    [2] => 24
)

Full documentation and examples of return type declarations can be found in the return type declarations. reference.

Null coalescing operator

The null coalescing operator (??) has been added as syntactic sugar for the common case of needing to use a ternary in conjunction with isset(). It returns its first operand if it exists and is not null; otherwise it returns its second operand.

<?php
// Fetches the value of $_GET['user'] and returns 'nobody'
// if it does not exist.
$username $_GET['user'] ?? 'nobody';
// This is equivalent to:
$username = isset($_GET['user']) ? $_GET['user'] : 'nobody';

// Coalescing can be chained: this will return the first
// defined value out of $_GET['user'], $_POST['user'], and
// 'nobody'.
$username $_GET['user'] ?? $_POST['user'] ?? 'nobody';
?>

Spaceship operator

The spaceship operator is used for comparing two expressions. It returns -1, 0 or 1 when $a is respectively less than, equal to, or greater than $b. Comparisons are performed according to PHP's usual type comparison rules.

<?php
// Integers
echo <=> 1// 0
echo <=> 2// -1
echo <=> 1// 1

// Floats
echo 1.5 <=> 1.5// 0
echo 1.5 <=> 2.5// -1
echo 2.5 <=> 1.5// 1
 
// Strings
echo "a" <=> "a"// 0
echo "a" <=> "b"// -1
echo "b" <=> "a"// 1
?>

Constant arrays using define()

Array constants can now be defined with define(). In PHP 5.6, they could only be defined with const.

<?php
define
('ANIMALS', [
    
'dog',
    
'cat',
    
'bird'
]);

echo 
ANIMALS[1]; // outputs "cat"
?>

Anonymous classes

Support for anonymous classes has been added via new class. These can be used in place of full class definitions for throwaway objects:

<?php
interface Logger {
    public function 
log(string $msg);
}

class 
Application {
    private 
$logger;

    public function 
getLogger(): Logger {
         return 
$this->logger;
    }

    public function 
setLogger(Logger $logger) {
         
$this->logger $logger;
    }
}

$app = new Application;
$app->setLogger(new class implements Logger {
    public function 
log(string $msg) {
        echo 
$msg;
    }
});

var_dump($app->getLogger());
?>

The above example will output:

object(class@anonymous)#2 (0) {
}

Full documentation can be found in the anonymous class reference.

Unicode codepoint escape syntax

This takes a Unicode codepoint in hexadecimal form, and outputs that codepoint in UTF-8 to a double-quoted string or a heredoc. Any valid codepoint is accepted, with leading 0's being optional.

echo "\u{aa}";
echo "\u{0000aa}";
echo "\u{9999}";

The above example will output:

ª
ª (same as before but with optional leading 0's)
香

Closure::call()

Closure::call() is a more performant, shorthand way of temporarily binding an object scope to a closure and invoking it.

<?php
class {private $x 1;}

// Pre PHP 7 code
$getX = function() {return $this->x;};
$getXCB $getX->bindTo(new A'A'); // intermediate closure
echo $getXCB();

// PHP 7+ code
$getX = function() {return $this->x;};
echo 
$getX->call(new A);

The above example will output:

1
1

Filtered unserialize()

This feature seeks to provide better security when unserializing objects on untrusted data. It prevents possible code injections by enabling the developer to whitelist classes that can be unserialized.

<?php

// converts all objects into __PHP_Incomplete_Class object
$data unserialize($foo, ["allowed_classes" => false]);

// converts all objects into __PHP_Incomplete_Class object except those of MyClass and MyClass2
$data unserialize($foo, ["allowed_classes" => ["MyClass""MyClass2"]]);

// default behaviour (same as omitting the second argument) that accepts all classes
$data unserialize($foo, ["allowed_classes" => true]);

IntlChar

The new IntlChar class seeks to expose additional ICU functionality. The class itself defines a number of static methods and constants that can be used to manipulate unicode characters.

<?php

printf
('%x'IntlChar::CODEPOINT_MAX);
echo 
IntlChar::charName('@');
var_dump(IntlChar::ispunct('!'));

The above example will output:

10ffff
COMMERCIAL AT
bool(true)

In order to use this class, the Intl extension must be installed.

Expectations

Expectations are a backwards compatible enhancement to the older assert() function. They allow for zero-cost assertions in production code, and provide the ability to throw custom exceptions when the assertion fails.

While the old API continues to be maintained for compatibility, assert() is now a language construct, allowing the first parameter to be an expression rather than just a string to be evaluated or a bool value to be tested.

<?php
ini_set
('assert.exception'1);

class 
CustomError extends AssertionError {}

assert(false, new CustomError('Some error message'));
?>

The above example will output:

Fatal error: Uncaught CustomError: Some error message

Full details on this feature, including how to configure it in both development and production environments, can be found in the expectations section of the assert() reference.

Group use declarations

Classes, functions and constants being imported from the same namespace can now be grouped together in a single use statement.

<?php
// Pre PHP 7 code
use some\namespace\ClassA;
use 
some\namespace\ClassB;
use 
some\namespace\ClassC as C;

use function 
some\namespace\fn_a;
use function 
some\namespace\fn_b;
use function 
some\namespace\fn_c;

use const 
some\namespace\ConstA;
use const 
some\namespace\ConstB;
use const 
some\namespace\ConstC;

// PHP 7+ code
use some\namespace\{ClassAClassBClassC as C};
use function 
some\namespace\{fn_afn_bfn_c};
use const 
some\namespace\{ConstAConstBConstC};
?>

Generator Return Expressions

This feature builds upon the generator functionality introduced into PHP 5.5. It enables for a return statement to be used within a generator to enable for a final expression to be returned (return by reference is not allowed). This value can be fetched using the new Generator::getReturn() method, which may only be used once the generator has finished yielding values.

<?php

$gen 
= (function() {
    yield 
1;
    yield 
2;

    return 
3;
})();

foreach (
$gen as $val) {
    echo 
$valPHP_EOL;
}

echo 
$gen->getReturn(), PHP_EOL;

The above example will output:

1
2
3

Being able to explicitly return a final value from a generator is a handy ability to have. This is because it enables for a final value to be returned by a generator (from perhaps some form of coroutine computation) that can be specifically handled by the client code executing the generator. This is far simpler than forcing the client code to firstly check whether the final value has been yielded, and then if so, to handle that value specifically.

Generator delegation

Generators can now delegate to another generator, Traversable object or array automatically, without needing to write boilerplate in the outermost generator by using the yield from construct.

<?php
function gen()
{
    yield 
1;
    yield 
2;
    yield from 
gen2();
}

function 
gen2()
{
    yield 
3;
    yield 
4;
}

foreach (
gen() as $val)
{
    echo 
$valPHP_EOL;
}
?>

The above example will output:

1
2
3
4

Integer division with intdiv()

The new intdiv() function performs an integer division of its operands and returns it.

<?php
var_dump
(intdiv(103));
?>

The above example will output:

int(3)

Session options

session_start() now accepts an array of options that override the session configuration directives normally set in php.ini.

These options have also been expanded to support session.lazy_write, which is on by default and causes PHP to only overwrite any session file if the session data has changed, and read_and_close, which is an option that can only be passed to session_start() to indicate that the session data should be read and then the session should immediately be closed unchanged.

For example, to set session.cache_limiter to private and immediately close the session after reading it:

<?php
session_start
([
    
'cache_limiter' => 'private',
    
'read_and_close' => true,
]);
?>

preg_replace_callback_array()

The new preg_replace_callback_array() function enables code to be written more cleanly when using the preg_replace_callback() function. Prior to PHP 7, callbacks that needed to be executed per regular expression required the callback function to be polluted with lots of branching.

Now, callbacks can be registered to each regular expression using an associative array, where the key is a regular expression and the value is a callback.

CSPRNG Functions

Two new functions have been added to generate cryptographically secure integers and strings in a cross platform way: random_bytes() and random_int().

list() can always unpack objects implementing ArrayAccess

Previously, list() was not guaranteed to operate correctly with objects implementing ArrayAccess. This has been fixed.

Other Features

  • Class member access on cloning has been added, e.g. (clone $foo)->bar().

PHP 5.6

New features

Constant expressions

It is now possible to provide a scalar expression involving numeric and string literals and/or constants in contexts where PHP previously expected a static value, such as constant and property declarations and default function arguments.

<?php
const ONE 1;
const 
TWO ONE 2;

class 
{
    const 
THREE TWO 1;
    const 
ONE_THIRD ONE self::THREE;
    const 
SENTENCE 'The value of THREE is '.self::THREE;

    public function 
f($a ONE self::THREE) {
        return 
$a;
    }
}

echo (new 
C)->f()."\n";
echo 
C::SENTENCE;
?>

The above example will output:

4
The value of THREE is 3

It is also now possible to define a constant array using the const keyword:

<?php
const ARR = ['a''b'];

echo 
ARR[0];
?>

The above example will output:

a

Variadic functions via ...

Variadic functions can now be implemented using the ... operator, instead of relying on func_get_args().

<?php
function f($req$opt null, ...$params) {
    
// $params is an array containing the remaining arguments.
    
printf('$req: %d; $opt: %d; number of params: %d'."\n",
           
$req$optcount($params));
}

f(1);
f(12);
f(123);
f(1234);
f(12345);
?>

The above example will output:

$req: 1; $opt: 0; number of params: 0
$req: 1; $opt: 2; number of params: 0
$req: 1; $opt: 2; number of params: 1
$req: 1; $opt: 2; number of params: 2
$req: 1; $opt: 2; number of params: 3

Argument unpacking via ...

Arrays and Traversable objects can be unpacked into argument lists when calling functions by using the ... operator. This is also known as the splat operator in other languages, including Ruby.

<?php
function add($a$b$c) {
    return 
$a $b $c;
}

$operators = [23];
echo 
add(1, ...$operators);
?>

The above example will output:

6

Exponentiation via **

A right associative ** operator has been added to support exponentiation, along with a **= shorthand assignment operator.

<?php
printf
("2 ** 3 ==      %d\n"** 3);
printf("2 ** 3 ** 2 == %d\n"** ** 2);

$a 2;
$a **= 3;
printf("a ==           %d\n"$a);
?>

The above example will output:

2 ** 3 ==      8
2 ** 3 ** 2 == 512
a ==           8

use function and use const

The use operator has been extended to support importing functions and constants in addition to classes. This is achieved via the use function and use const constructs, respectively.

<?php
namespace Name\Space {
    const 
FOO 42;
    function 
f() { echo __FUNCTION__."\n"; }
}

namespace {
    use const 
Name\Space\FOO;
    use function 
Name\Space\f;

    echo 
FOO."\n";
    
f();
}
?>

The above example will output:

42
Name\Space\f

phpdbg

PHP now includes an interactive debugger called phpdbg implemented as a SAPI module. For more information, please visit the phpdbg documentation.

Default character encoding

default_charset is now used as the default character set for the htmlentities(), html_entity_decode() and htmlspecialchars() functions. Note that if the (now deprecated) iconv and mbstring encoding settings are set, they will take precedence over default_charset for iconv and mbstring functions, respectively.

The default value for this setting is UTF-8.

php://input is reusable

php://input may now be reopened and read as many times as required. This work has also resulted in a major reduction in the amount of memory required to deal with POST data.

Large file uploads

Files larger than 2 gigabytes in size are now accepted.

GMP supports operator overloading

GMP objects now support operator overloading and casting to scalar types. This allows for more expressive code using GMP:

<?php
$a 
gmp_init(42);
$b gmp_init(17);

if (
version_compare(PHP_VERSION'5.6''<')) {
    echo 
gmp_intval(gmp_add($a$b)), PHP_EOL;
    echo 
gmp_intval(gmp_add($a17)), PHP_EOL;
    echo 
gmp_intval(gmp_add(42$b)), PHP_EOL;
} else {
    echo 
$a $bPHP_EOL;
    echo 
$a 17PHP_EOL;
    echo 
42 $bPHP_EOL;
}
?>

The above example will output:

59
59
59

hash_equals() for timing attack safe string comparison

The hash_equals() function has been added to compare two strings in constant time. This should be used to mitigate timing attacks; for instance, when testing crypt() password hashes (assuming that you are unable to use password_hash() and password_verify(), which aren't susceptible to timing attacks).

<?php
$expected  
crypt('12345''$2a$07$usesomesillystringforsalt$');
$correct   crypt('12345''$2a$07$usesomesillystringforsalt$');
$incorrect crypt('1234',  '$2a$07$usesomesillystringforsalt$');

var_dump(hash_equals($expected$correct));
var_dump(hash_equals($expected$incorrect));
?>

The above example will output:

bool(true)
bool(false)

__debugInfo()

The __debugInfo() magic method has been added to allow objects to change the properties and values that are shown when the object is output using var_dump().

<?php
class {
    private 
$prop;

    public function 
__construct($val) {
        
$this->prop $val;
    }

    public function 
__debugInfo() {
        return [
            
'propSquared' => $this->prop ** 2,
        ];
    }
}

var_dump(new C(42));
?>

The above example will output:

object(C)#1 (1) {
  ["propSquared"]=>
  int(1764)
}

gost-crypto hash algorithm

The gost-crypto hash algorithm has been added. This implements the GOST hash function using the CryptoPro S-box tables as specified by » RFC 4357, section 11.2.

SSL/TLS improvements

A wide range of improvements have been made to the SSL/TLS support in PHP 5.6. These include enabling peer verification by default, supporting certificate fingerprint matching, mitigating against TLS renegotiation attacks, and many new SSL context options to allow more fine grained control over protocol and verification settings when using encrypted streams.

These changes are described in more detail in the OpenSSL changes in PHP 5.6.x section of this migration guide.

pgsql async support

The pgsql extension now supports asynchronous connections and queries, thereby enabling non-blocking behaviour when interacting with PostgreSQL databases. Asynchronous connections may be established via the PGSQL_CONNECT_ASYNC constant, and the new pg_connect_poll(), pg_socket(), pg_consume_input() and pg_flush() functions may be used to handle asynchronous connections and queries.

PHP 5.5

New features

Generators added

Support for generators has been added via the yield keyword. Generators provide an easy way to implement simple iterators without the overhead or complexity of implementing a class that implements the Iterator interface.

A simple example that reimplements the range() function as a generator (at least for positive step values):

<?php
function xrange($start$limit$step 1) {
    for (
$i $start$i <= $limit$i += $step) {
        yield 
$i;
    }
}

echo 
'Single digit odd numbers: ';

/*
 * Note that an array is never created or returned,
 * which saves memory.
 */
foreach (xrange(192) as $number) {
    echo 
"$number ";
}

echo 
"\n";
?>

The above example will output:

Single digit odd numbers: 1 3 5 7 9 

finally keyword added

try-catch blocks now support a finally block for code that should be run regardless of whether an exception has been thrown or not.

New password hashing API

A new password hashing API that makes it easier to securely hash and manage passwords using the same underlying library as crypt() in PHP has been added. See the documentation for password_hash() for more detail.

foreach now supports list()

The foreach control structure now supports unpacking nested arrays into separate variables via the list() construct. For example:

<?php
$array 
= [
    [
12],
    [
34],
];

foreach (
$array as list($a$b)) {
    echo 
"A: $a; B: $b\n";
}
?>

The above example will output:

A: 1; B: 2
A: 3; B: 4

Further documentation is available on the foreach manual page.

empty() supports arbitrary expressions

Passing an arbitrary expression instead of a variable to empty() is now supported. For example:

<?php
function always_false() {
    return 
false;
}

if (empty(
always_false())) {
    echo 
"This will be printed.\n";
}

if (empty(
true)) {
    echo 
"This will not be printed.\n";
}
?>

The above example will output:

This will be printed.

array and string literal dereferencing

Array and string literals can now be dereferenced directly to access individual elements and characters:

<?php
echo 'Array dereferencing: ';
echo [
123][0];
echo 
"\n";

echo 
'String dereferencing: ';
echo 
'PHP'[0];
echo 
"\n";
?>

The above example will output:

Array dereferencing: 1
String dereferencing: P

Class name resolution via ::class

It is possible to use ClassName::class to get a fully qualified name of class ClassName. For example:

<?php
namespace Name\Space;
class 
ClassName {}

echo 
ClassName::class;

echo 
"\n";
?>

The above example will output:

Name\Space\ClassName

OPcache extension added

The Zend Optimiser+ opcode cache has been added to PHP as the new OPcache extension. OPcache improves PHP performance by storing precompiled script bytecode in shared memory, thereby removing the need for PHP to load and parse scripts on each request. See the installation instructions for more detail on enabling and using OPcache.

foreach now supports non-scalar keys

foreach now supports keys of any type. While non-scalar keys cannot occur in native PHP arrays, it is possible for Iterator::key() to return a value of any type, and this will now be handled correctly.

Apache 2.4 handler supported on Windows

The Apache 2.4 handler SAPI is now supported on Windows.

Improvements to GD

Various improvements have been made to the GD extension, these include:

PHP 5.4

New features

PHP 5.4.0 offers a wide range of new features:

  • Support for traits has been added.
  • Short array syntax has been added, e.g. $a = [1, 2, 3, 4]; or $a = ['one' => 1, 'two' => 2, 'three' => 3, 'four' => 4];.
  • Function array dereferencing has been added, e.g. foo()[0].
  • Closures now support $this.
  • <?= is now always available, regardless of the short_open_tag php.ini option.
  • Class member access on instantiation has been added, e.g. (new Foo)->bar().
  • Class::{expr}() syntax is now supported.
  • Binary number format has been added, e.g. 0b001001101.
  • Improved parse error messages and improved incompatible arguments warnings.
  • The session extension can now track the upload progress of files.
  • Built-in development web server in CLI mode.
  • The GD extension now supports reading and writing of WebP images via imagecreatefromwebp() and imagewebp(), respectively.

PHP 5.3

New features

PHP 5.3.0 offers a wide range of new features:

  • Support for namespaces has been added.
  • Support for Late Static Bindings has been added.
  • Support for jump labels (limited goto) has been added.
  • Support for native Closures (Lambda/Anonymous functions) has been added.
  • There are two new magic methods, __callStatic() and __invoke().
  • Nowdoc syntax is now supported, similar to Heredoc syntax, but with single quotes.
  • It is now possible to use Heredocs to initialize static variables and class properties/constants.
  • Heredocs may now be declared using double quotes, complementing the Nowdoc syntax.
  • Constants can now be declared outside a class using the const keyword.
  • The ternary operator now has a shorthand form: ?:.
  • The HTTP stream wrapper now considers all status codes from 200 to 399 to be successful.
  • Dynamic access to static methods is now possible:
    <?php
    class {
       public static 
    $foo 123;
    }

    $a "C";
    echo 
    $a::$foo;
    ?>

    The above example will output:

    123
    
  • Exceptions can now be nested:
    <?php
    class MyCustomException extends Exception {}

    try {
        throw new 
    MyCustomException("Exceptional"112);
    } catch (
    Exception $e) {
        
    /* Note the use of the third parameter to pass $e
         * into the RuntimeException. */
        
    throw new RuntimeException("Rethrowing"911$e);
    }
    ?>
  • A garbage collector for circular references has been added, and is enabled by default.
  • The mail() function now supports logging of sent email via the mail.log configuration directive. (Note: This only applies to email sent through this function.)